The present day location of each area is given in parenthesis. 1922. [123] (That level of growth compared very favourably to that of other European nations such as Britain (1.00%), France (1.06%), and Germany (1.51%).) The Allies rejected the idea of plebiscites in the disputed areas with the exception of the city of Sopron, which voted in favour of Hungary. Trattato del Trianon; trattato di adesione CE; trattato di adesione UE; Trattato di Amiens; trattato di Amsterdam; Trattato di Amsterdam; trattato magyar fordítás és meghatározás "trattato", olasz-magyar szótár online. [140], Articles 61–66 stated that all former citizens of the Kingdom of Hungary living outside the newly defined frontiers of Hungary were to ipso facto lose their Hungarian nationality in one year. The Hungarian political attitude towards Trianon was summed up in the phrases Nem, nem, soha! 1920 Június 4. or "Everything back!"). Εξετάστε τα παραδείγματα μετάφρασης του Trattato del Trianon σε προτάσεις, ακούστε την προφορά και μάθετε τη γραμματική. G. Gratz and R. Schuller, Die Wirtschaftliche Zusammenbruch Oesterreich Ungarns (Vienna. Überprüfen Sie die Übersetzungen von 'Trattato dei XXIV articoli' ins Deutsch. Industrial workers from Budapest volunteered. The disintegration of the multi-national state conversely impacted neighbouring countries, too: In Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia, and Bulgaria a fifth to a third of the rural population could find no work, and industry was in no position to absorb them. The de factotemporary borders of independent Hungary were defined by the ceasefire lines in November–December 1918. Despite promises for the restoration of the former borders of Hungary, the communists declared the establishment of the Slovak Soviet Republic in Prešov (Eperjes) on 16 June 1919. Trattato del Trianon (1920) - Trattato di pace firmato dopo la Prima guerra mondiale, col quale […] l'Ungheria perse il 72% circa dei suoi territori. [116] Most Hungarians regarded the treaty as an insult to the nation's honour. Europarl8 Europarl8 . While the territories that were now outside Hungary's borders had non-Hungarian majorities overall, there also existed some sizeable areas with a majority of Hungarians, largely near the newly defined borders. "Hungarian and Soviet Efforts to Possess Ruthenia", Romsics, Ignác. Terjemahan Trattato del Trianon ke dalam bahasa Inggris There are several reasons for this population decrease, some of which were spontaneous assimilation and certain state policies, like Slovakization, Romanianization, Serbianisation. excluding Croatia-Slavonia. It regulated the status of the independent Hungarian state[citation needed] and defined its borders generally within the ceasefire lines established in November–December 1918 and left Hungary as a landlocked state that included 93,073 square kilometres (35,936 sq mi), 28% of the 325,411 square kilometres (125,642 sq mi) that had constituted the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary (the Hungarian half of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy). International Encyclopedia of the First World War, The Paris Peace Conference and its Consequences, Map of Hungarian borders in November–December 1918, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Treaties of the Kingdom of Hungary (1922–1946), Treaties of the Hungarian People's Republic, Treaties of the Third Republic of Hungary,, Treaties of the Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1946), Treaties of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946), Treaties of the Portuguese First Republic, Treaties of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Treaties of the United Kingdom (1801–1922), Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2015, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing Hungarian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 2,831,222 Romanians (53.8%). The key success of fast development was specialisation of each region in fields that they were best. Magyarok Trianonban.jpg 1,568 × 606; 276 KB. [20], On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war against Germany, and in December 1917 against Austria-Hungary. [51] The lengthy negotiation process was recorded on a daily basis by János Wettstein [hu], deputy first secretary of the Hungarian delegation. As a consequence of the treaty, all the competitive industries of the former empire were compelled to close doors, as great capacity was met by negligible demand owing to economic barriers presented in the form of the newly defined borders. Hence, much of the rail cargo traffic of the emergent states was virtually paralysed. Alcuni demografi, comunque, ritengono che il censimento del 1910 avesse sovrastimato la percentuale di magiari, argomentando con il fatto che ci sarebbero stati risultati differenti nei precedenti censimenti del regno e nei censimenti successivi. This treaty was mainly designed by French and British representatives. [135], The drastic shift in economic climate forced the countries to re-evaluate their situation and to promote industries where they had fallen short. [98][99][100] Areas with significant Hungarian populations included the Székely Land[101] in Eastern Transylvania, the area along the newly defined Romanian-Hungarian border (cities of Arad, Oradea), the area north of the newly defined Czechoslovakian–Hungarian border (Komárno, Csallóköz), southern parts of Subcarpathia and northern parts of Vojvodina. When the French promised the Hungarian government that Romanian forces would withdraw from the Tiszántúl, Kun withdrew his remaining military units who had remained loyal after the political fiasco in Upper Hungary. "Peacebuilding in an Era of State-Nations: The Europe of Trianon. 4 June - Treaty of Trianon, Treaty of Peace between the Allies and Hungary. Se vi volas enigi tiun artikolon en la originalan Esperanto-Vikipedion, vi povas uzi nian specialan redakt-interfacon. 1930); K. Rotschild, Austria's Economic Development Between the Two Wars (London, 1946). The de facto temporary borders of independent Hungary were defined by the ceasefire lines in November–December 1918. In 1918 Germany tried to overwhelm the Allies on the Western Front; it failed. Bilingualism was also disappearing. Ελέγξτε τις μεταφράσεις του "Trattato del Trianon" στα Ελληνικά. "The United States' Role in the Shaping of the Peace Treaty of Trianon. Questo alla fine portò agli Arbitrati di Vienna (primo e secondo), dove venne restituita una parte significativa (circa il 25%, ovvero 55.000 km²) del territorio perso nel 1920. Treaty of Trianon (1920) Redefinition of borders after World War I; Hungary loses about 72% of its territory. Il 31 ottobre 1918, a Timișoara venne proclamata la Repubblica del Banato e il governo ungherese ne riconobbe l'indipendenza. .mw-parser-output .chiarimento{background:#ffeaea;color:#444444}.mw-parser-output .chiarimento-apice{color:red}Alcuni demografi, comunque, ritengono che il censimento del 1910 avesse sovrastimato la percentuale di magiari, argomentando con il fatto che ci sarebbero stati risultati differenti nei precedenti censimenti del regno e nei censimenti successivi[senza fonte]. [7][8][9][10] The treaty limited Hungary's army to 35,000 officers and men, and the Austro-Hungarian Navy ceased to exist. "The Image of the "Maimed Hungary" in 20th Century Cultural Memory and the 21st Century Consequences of an Unresolved Collective Trauma: The Impact of the Treaty of Trianon." A cura della Lega per la revisione del Trattato di Trianon. The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 to formally end World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary. Hanák, Peter. See/download bungalow rates Wooden bungalows Trianon Capacity 4 People. "The Impact of Trianon upon Hungary and the Hungarian Mind: The Nature of Interwar Hungarian Irredentism. Within the borders of "Hungary proper" numerous ethnic minorities were present: 16.1% Romanians, 10.5% Slovaks, 10.4% Germans, 2.5% Ruthenians, 2.5% Serbs and 8% others. WikiMatrix WikiMatrix . N. Layton and Ch. Germany, the major ally of Austria-Hungary in World War I, suffered numerous losses during Hundred Days Offensive between August and November 1918 and was in negotiation of armistice with Allied Powers from beginning of October 1918. Vedere/scaricare le tariffe dei bungalow Bungalow in legno Trianon Capacità 4 Persone. During the Sopron area plebiscite, the polling stations were supervised by army officers belonging to the Allied powers. In the end, this particular invitation was not issued. Anna Menyhért, "The Image of the "Maimed Hungary" in 20th Century Cultural Memory and the 21st Century Consequences of an Unresolved Collective Trauma: The Impact of the Treaty of Trianon." [25] The political collapse of Austria-Hungary itself was now only a matter of days away. This tendency, however, led to uniform economies and competitive economic advantage of long well-established industries and research fields evaporated. [11], The principal beneficiaries were the Kingdom of Romania, the Czechoslovak Republic, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), and the First Austrian Republic. [63] During prior negotiations, the Hungarian party, along with the Austrian, advocated the American principle of self-determination: that the population of disputed territories should decide by free plebiscite to which country they wished to belong. Despite a series of military victories against the Czechoslovak army, the Hungarian Red Army started to disintegrate due to tension between nationalists and communists during the establishment of the Slovak Soviet Republic. El sustine ca premierul Vlad Filat nu avea mandatul necesar pentru a semna acest act. [80] Owen Johnson, an American historian, accepts the numbers of the earlier censuses up to the one in 1900, according to which the proportion of the Hungarians was 51.4%,[76] but he neglects the 1910 census as he thinks the changes since the last census are too big. The final borders of Hungary were defined by the Treaty of Trianon signed on 4 June 1920. After a Hungarian-Czechoslovak cease-fire signed on 1 July 1919, the Hungarian Red Army left parts of Slovakia by 4 July, as the Entente powers promised to invite a Hungarian delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference. The option of partition along ethnic lines as an alternative was rejected.[102]. Le condizioni militari furono simili a quelle imposte alla Germania dal trattato di Versailles (1919); l'esercito ungherese venne limitato a 35.000 uomini e dovette rinunciare alla coscrizione obbligatoria. Trattato del Trianon (1920) - Trattato di pace firmato dopo la Prima guerra mondiale, col quale l'Ungheria perse il 72% circa dei suoi territori. El Tractat del Trianon, signat el 4 de juny de 1920, és la conclusió de l'assemblea celebrada al palau del Grand Trianon del castell de Versalles , per tal d'establir l'status d'Hongria després de la seva derrota a la I Guerra Mundial. Part of Transylvania south of the Mureş river (Romanian: Mureş; Hungarian: Maros) and east of the Someş river (Romanian: Someş; Hungarian: Szamos), which came un… The Treaty of Trianon was signed between the Allied Forces and Kingdom of Hungary. [37] Demarcation lines defining the territory to remain under Hungarian control were made. 1,687,977 Slovaks [according to the 1921 census: 1,941,942 Slovaks], 1,233,454 "others" (mostly Hungarians – 886,044, Germans, Ruthenians and Roma) [according to the 1921 census: 1,058,928 of "others"], 1,366,000 others (mostly Hungarians and Germans), 275,932 "others" (mostly Hungarians, Germans, Romanians, and Slovaks), 69,858 "others" (mainly Croatian and Hungarian). Furthermore, many trading routes that went through the newly defined borders from various parts of the pre-war kingdom were abandoned. Trianon.jpg 1,121 × 806; 373 KB. French diplomats played the major role in the drafting, and Hungarians were kept in the dark. [79] These reasons are ground for debate about the accuracy of the census. p.37. Questa pagina è stata modificata per l'ultima volta il 26 apr 2020 alle 21:56. By the arbitrations of Germany and Italy, Hungary expanded its borders towards neighbouring countries before and during World War II. Instead it negotiated a separate peace treaty with Hungary in 1921 that did not contradict the terms of the Trianon treaty.[55]. [21][22] It called for a just and democratic peace uncompromised by territorial annexation. The Allies had explicitly committed themselves to the causes of the minority peoples of Austria-Hungary late in World War I. Hungary was progressing economically very well during late 19 th century into the twentieth century. Many roads and railways, running along the newly defined borders and interlinking radial transport lines, ended up in different, highly introvert countries. The lines would apply until definitive borders could be established. Media in category "Treaty of Trianon" The following 29 files are in this category, out of 29 total. Ansonsten wird der Vertrag von Trianon für uns alle etwas symbolisieren, das nicht gut ist. Unable to reject these terms and unwilling to accept them, the leaders of the Hungarian Democratic Republic resigned and the Communists seized power. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was one economic unit with autarkic characteristics[121][122] during its golden age and therefore achieved rapid growth, especially in the early 20th century when GNP grew by 1.76%. [12] The Hungarian delegation signed the treaty under protest, and agitation for its revision began immediately. This census recorded population by language and religion, but not by ethnicity. Guarda le traduzioni di ‘Trattato del Trianon’ in Bulgaro. The treaty regulated the status of an independent Hungarian state and defined its borders. After 1918, Hungary did not have access to the sea, which pre-war Hungary formerly had directly through the Rijeka coastline and indirectly through Croatia-Slavonia. [52] The treaty of peace in final form was submitted to the Hungarians on 6 May and signed by them in Grand Trianon[53] on 4 June 1920, entering into force on 26 July 1921. ", Bartha, Dezso. Peter Hanák, "Hungary on a fixed course: An outline of Hungarian history, 1918–1945." Compared with the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary, these temporary borders did not include: 1. By the time the victorious Allies arrived in France, the treaty was already settled, which made the outcome inevitable. The Romanians had suffered a higher relative casualty rate in the war than either Britain[105][106][107] or France[106][107][108] so it was considered that the Western powers had a moral debt to repay. "Hungarian Revisionism in Thought and Action, 1920–1941: Plans, Expectations, Reality" in Marina Cattaruzza ed., Várdy, Steven Béla. The ceasefire line had the character of a temporary international border until the treaty. [112] The Hungarians did not see it this way because the newly defined borders did not fully respect territorial distribution of ethnic groups,[113] with areas where there were Hungarian majorities[113] outside the new borders. On 20 March 1919, Béla Kun, who had been imprisoned in the Markó Street prison, was released. The Hungarian state was restored by the Entente powers, helping Admiral Horthy into power in November 1919. In addition, 21% of the Germans spoke both Slovak and Hungarian beside German. To make the situation even more complex, in the multilingual kingdom there were territories with ethnically mixed populations where people spoke two or even three languages natively. the Treaty of Trianon France started or planned to form new allies. [131] Austria, especially the imperial capital Vienna, was a leading investor of development projects throughout the empire with more than 2.2 billion crown capital. Document 246. [2][3][4][5] French diplomats played the major role in designing the treaty, with a mind to establishing French-led coalition of the newly formed nations. The main reasons of this process were both spontaneous assimilation and the deliberate Magyarization policy of the state. A seguito del Trattato di Trianon, l'Ungheria perse i suoi territori più settentrionali. By the end of October 1918, the Austro-Hungarian Army was so fatigued that its commanders were forced to seek a ceasefire. This happened under the direction of Béla Linder, (minister of war) on 2 November 1918[28][29] The Hungarian Royal Honvéd army still had more than 1,400,000 soldiers[30][31] when Mihály Károlyi was announced as prime minister of Hungary. For instance, Romania gained all of Transylvania, which was home to 2,800,000 Romanians, but also contained a significant minority of 1,600,000 Hungarians and about 250,000 Germans. Most Hungarians preferred to maintain the territorial integrity of the pre-war kingdom. Many former Austro-Hungarian officers re-enlisted for patriotic reasons. The concession eroded support of the communist government among professional military officers and nationalists in the Hungarian Red Army; even the chief of the general staff Aurél Stromfeld, resigned his post in protest.[50]. By Edwin A. Pratt, The Rise of Rail-Power in War and Conquest, Role in the Weimar Republic's hyperinflation, Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Soviet–Czechoslovakia Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Soviet–British–French Moscow negotiations, ceasefire lines established in November–December 1918, Czechoslovak Regiments were formed in the Italian Army, annexations of territories after the breakup of Yugoslavia, "Text of the Treaty, Treaty of Peace Between The Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary And Protocol and Declaration, Signed at Trianon June 4, 1920", "East on the Danube: Hungary's Tragic Century", "AZ ŐRVIDÉKI (BURGENLANDI) MAGYARSÁG SORSA",, "Trianon volt az utolsó csepp – A Magyar Királyság sorsa már jóval a békeszerződés aláírása előtt eldőlt", "Grand Trianon in Versailles Palace. [133], With the creation of customs barriers and fragmented protective economies, the economic growth and outlook in the region sharply declined,[134] ultimately culminating in a deep recession. [124] Meanwhile, the territory of present-day Czech Republic (Kingdom of Bohemia) owned 75% of the whole industrial capacity of former Austria-Hungary. "Trianon and its aftermath: British geography and the 'dismemberment’of Hungary, c. 1915-c. Toomey, "History, nationalism and democracy: myth and narrative in Viktor Orbán’s 'illiberal Hungary'." Le minoranze ungheresi negli stati successori. 1920. június 4. Romania, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia had to assume part of the financial obligations of the former Kingdom of Hungary on account of the parts of its former territory that were assigned under their sovereignty. An arbitration committee in 1920 assigned small northern parts of the former Árva and Szepes counties of the Kingdom of Hungary with Polish majority population to Poland. This was later known as the Red Terror in Hungary. ("No, no, never!") The Hungarians could not take part in the negotiations, so the treaty was dictated by the victorious powers of the Entente (Südosteuropa Lexikon 517), to refinance the war … Translation for 'Trianon' in the free Italian-English dictionary and many other English translations. Furthermore, they believed the treaty would help toward a new era of dependence on international law, the fraternity of nations, equal rights, and human liberty as well as aid civilisation in the effort to free humanity from international violence.[71]. Adolf Hitler, applicando sino alle estreme conseguenze i principi nazionalisti, pianificò l'annessione alla Germania di tutti i territori fuori dai confini della madrepatria abitati da Tedeschi, e avviò a soluzione finale l'eliminazione degli Ebrei. Treaty of Trianon, (1920), treaty concluding World War I and signed by representatives of Hungary on one side and the Allied Powers on the other. For example, the 1921 census in Czechoslovakia (only one year after the Treaty of Trianon) shows 21% Hungarians in Slovakia,[85] compared to 30% based on 1910 census. It formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I[1] and the Kingdom of Hungary. [12] In addition, Hungary had to pay war reparations to its neighbours. Il Grande Trianon dove tra l'altro venne firmato il Trattato del Trianon. (2018), Rudolf Chmel, "Syndrom of Trianon in Hungarian Foreign Policy and Act on Hungarians Living in Neighboring Countries.". "Hungary on a fixed course: An outline of Hungarian history, 1918–1945." This sum sunk to a mere 8.6 million crowns after the treaty took effect and resulted in a starving of capital in other regions of the former empire.[132]. Iván T. Berend and G. Ranki, Economic Development of East Central Europe (New York, 1974). The Hungarian Red Army moved its 1st and 5th artillery divisions—40 battalions—to Upper Hungary. [127][128][129] New borders also bisected transport links – in the Kingdom of Hungary the road and railway network had a radial structure, with Budapest in the centre. However, these new or enlarged countries also absorbed large slices of territory with a majority of ethnic Hungarians or Hungarian speaking population. In late May, after the Entente military representative demanded more territorial concessions from Hungary, Kun attempted to "fulfill" his promise to adhere to Hungary's historical borders. The 1919 and 1920 Transylvanian censuses indicate a greater percentage of Romanians (57.1% / 57.3%). Czechoslovakia and the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs were proclaimed and troops started deserting, disobeying orders and retreating. Instead the Allies began a successful counteroffensive and forced the Armistice of 11 November 1918 that resembled a surrender by the Central Powers. I confini provvisori dell'Ungheria vennero definiti nel novembre/dicembre 1918. Ausspracheführer: Lernen Sie Trattato del Trianon auf Italienisch muttersprachlich auszusprechen. The Kingdom of Hungary was the main supplier of wheat, rye, barley and other various goods in the empire and these comprised a large portion of the empire's exports. However, it is generally accepted that the largest ethnic group in the Kingdom of Hungary in this time were the Hungarians. Due to the full disarmament of its army, Hungary was to remain without a national defence at a time of particular vulnerability. [117] The perceived humiliation of the treaty became a dominant theme in inter-war Hungarian politics, analogous with the German reaction to the Treaty of Versailles.